From beginning to 1945
The term of “Hapkido” had not been used in Korea until the late of 1950’s, there is no critical evidence that Shinrasaburo Minamoto Yoshishimitsu known as the founder of Aikido is a descendant of Shilla, and it is said that Young Sool Choi, a pioneer of raising Hapkido in Korea defined his martial arts as Yawara or Yusool, not Hapkido. Therefore there are controversies on contending that Hapkido began from the days of Gochosun only based on sevral phrases in an old literature, and someone persists to admit that Hapkidon began after the year 1945 when Korea was liberated from Japanese colonization. Nevertheless, nowadays in Korea, the history of Hapkido from beginning to 1945 is generally reffered as follows.
The origin of Hapkido can be found from the phrase of “Kiwha(氣化-Jimyung
(知命)-Hapwhye(合慧)” on a chapter of Jinlihoonpyun(眞理訓篇) in Samilsingo
(三一神誥), the oldest Scriptures mentioning Dangoon mythology of Gochosun.
Hapkido was transmitted to GoGuryeo, Baekje and Shinra as Chosuneuido,
Subyeokta and Kukseonwharangdo respectively. At that time Hakido was
a martial arts for the family of kingdom, monk and the aristocratic class.
In the days of Shinra, Hapkido was transferred to Japan. In Japan, Hapkido was maintained and transmitted to descendants as Daitoryu aikijujitsu, a secret martial arts of Takeda family, and it was chosen as a martial arts for Samurai in Japan. Shinra Saburo Minamoto no Yoshimitsu who is recognized as the founder of Japanese Hapkido, belonged to Takeda family. The surname of Minamoto no Yoshimitsu was Seiwagenji, and later the family used Takeda as its surname. At the middle of 9th century the ancestor of Minamoto no Yoshimitsu was bestowed the surname of Seiwagenji from Japanese emperor in reward for contribution to military revolution to establish Seiwa emperor as the Japanese emperor. And at the middle of 11th century, Minamoto no Yoshimitsu pacified the north eastern region of Tokyo with his father(Minamoto no Yoriyoshi, 998-1075) and brother(Minamoto no Yoshiie, 1041-1106), and was given Takeda territory in Gai region located at the north of Fujii mountain. Later his son began to use Takeda as the surname of his family. Minamoto no Yoshimitsu declared that he was a descendant and his title was Saburo, a official title in Gochosun and Sinra, and he decided his name as Shinra Saburo Minamoto no Yoshimitsu. In this Takeda family, Daitoryu aikijujitsu, the former one of Hapkido, was preserved secretly as the family martial arts and transmitted to descendants.
Daitoryu aikijujitsu had been kept secretly as a martial arts of Takeda family until the 35th descendant, Takeda Sokaku(18660-1943) who recorded “Seiwagenji“ and “Takeda family“ officially in the chronicle of Daitoryu aikijujitsu and pronounced that his ancestor had come from Shilla. From that time Takeda Sokaku began to be recognized as one of founders who rehabilitated Daitoryu aikijujitsu. Takeda Sokaku instructed Daitoryu aikijujitsu to Young Sool Choi(1899-1986) and Morihei Ueshiba(1883-1969). Later Young Sool Choi built up Hapkido in Korea, and Morihei Ueshiba did in Japan as a term of Aikido. Young Sool Choi emigrated to Japan in his childhood. Young Sool Choi, from 1913 when he was 13 years old, began to stay at the house of Takeda Sohokaku, and he took lessons in Daitoryu aikijujitsu under Takeda Sokaku personally. Young Sool Choi stated that at that time Takeda Sohokaku said to him as follows. “ Daitoryu aikijujitsu was originated from Korea, and now I am teaching you only to give it back to you. When Korea was liberated from colonization by Japan, Young Sool Choi came back to Korea, established Daihanhapkiyugwonsool gymnasium in Daegu and strived for the development of Hapkido in Korea.